Abortion in Judaism



Issues in Jewish Ethics: Abortion

Abortion is defined as the artificial termination of a woman’s pregnancy. The traditional Jewish view on abortion does not fit conveniently into any of the major “camps” in the current American abortion debate – Judaism neither bans abortion completely nor does it allow indiscriminate abortion.

In the Biblical Period

A monetary penalty was imposed for causing abortion of a woman’s fetus in the course of a quarrel, and the penalty of death if the woman’s own death resulted there from. “And if men strive together, and hurt a woman with child, so that her fruit depart, and yet no harm follow – he shall be surely fined, according as the woman’s husband shall lay upon him; and he shall pay as the judges determine. But if any harm follow – then thou shall give life for life” (Ex. 21:22–23). According to the Septuagint the term “harm” applied to the fetus and not to the woman, and a distinction is drawn between the abortion of a fetus which has not yet assumed complete shape – for which there is the monetary penalty – and the abortion of a fetus which has assumed complete shape – for which the penalty is “life for life.” Philo (Spec., 3:108) specifically prescribes the imposition of the death penalty for causing an abortion, and the text is likewise construed in the Samaritan Targum and by a substantial number of Karaite commentators. A. Geiger deduces from this the existence of an ancient law according to which (contrary to talmudic halakhah) the penalty for aborting a fetus of completed shape was death (Ha-Mikra ve-Targumav, 280–1, 343–4). The talmudic scholars, however, maintained that the word “harm” refers to the woman and not to the fetus, since the scriptural injunction, “He that smiteth a man so that he dieth, shall surely be put to death” (Ex. 21:12), did not apply to the killing of a fetus (Mekh. SbY, ed. Epstein-Melamed, 126; also Mekh. Mishpatim 8; Targ. Yer., Ex. 21:22–23; BK 42a). Similarly, Josephus states that a person who causes the abortion of a woman’s fetus as a result of kicking her shall pay a fine for “diminishing the population,” in addition to paying monetary compensation to the husband, and that such a person shall be put to death if the woman dies of the blow (Ant., 4:278). According to the laws of the ancient East (Sumer, Assyria, the Hittites), punishment for inflicting an aborting blow was monetary and sometimes even flagellation, but not death (except for one provision in Assyrian law concerning willful abortion, self-inflicted). In the Code of Hammurapi (no. 209, 210) there is a parallel to the construction of the two quoted passages: “If a man strikes a woman [with child] causing her fruit to depart, he shall pay ten shekalim for her loss of child. If the woman should die, he who struck the blow shall be put to death.”

In the Talmudic Period

In talmudic times, as in ancient halakhah, abortion was not considered a transgression unless the fetus was viable (ben keyama; Mekh. Mishpatim 4 and see Sanh. 84b and Nid. 44b; see Rashi ; ad loc.), hence, even if an infant is only one day old, his killer is guilty of murder (Nid. 5:3). In the view of R. Ishmael, only a Gentile, to whom some of the basic transgressions applied with greater stringency, incurred the death penalty for causing the loss of the fetus (Sanh. 57b). Thus abortion, although prohibited, does not constitute murder (Tos., Sanh. 59a; Ḥul. 33a). The scholars deduced the prohibition against abortion by an a fortiori argument from the laws concerning abstention from procreation, or onanism, or having sexual relations with one’s wife when likely to harm the fetus in her womb – the perpetrator whereof being regarded as “a shedder of blood” (Yev. 62b; Nid. 13a and 31a; Ḥavvat Ya’ir, no. 31; She’elat Yaveẓ, 1:43; Mishpetei Uziel, 3:46). This is apparently also the meaning of Josephus’ statement that “the Law has commanded to raise all the children and prohibited women from aborting or destroying seed; a woman who does so shall be judged a murderess of children for she has caused a soul to be lost and the family of man to be diminished” (Apion, 2:202).

The Zohar explains that the basis of the prohibition against abortion is that “a person who kills the fetus in his wife’s womb desecrates that which was built by the Holy One and His craftsmanship.” Israel is praised because notwithstanding the decree, in Egypt, “every son that is born ye shall cast into the river” (Ex. 1:22), “there was found no single person to kill the fetus in the womb of the woman, much less after its birth. By virtue of this Israel went out of bondage” (Zohar, Ex., ed. Warsaw, 3b).

Abortion is permitted if the fetus endangers the mother’s life. Thus, “if a woman travails to give birth [and it is feared she may die], one may sever the fetus from her womb and extract it, member by member, for her life takes precedence over his” (Oho. 7:6). This is the case only as long as the fetus has not emerged into the world, when it is not a life at all and “it may be killed and the mother saved” (Rashi and Meiri, Sanh. 72b). But, from the moment that the greater part of the fetus has emerged into the world – either its head only, or its greater part – it may not be touched, even if it endangers the mother’s life: “ein doḥin nefesh mi-penei nefesh” (“one may not reject one life to save another” – Oho. and Sanh. ibid.). Even though one is enjoined to save a person who is being pursued, if necessary by killing the pursuer (see Penal Law ), the law distinguishes between a fetus which has emerged into the world and a “pursuer,” since “she [the mother] is pursued from heaven” (Sanh. 72b) and moreover, “such is the way of the world” (Maim., Yad, Roẓe’aḥ 1:9) and “one does not know whether the fetus is pursuing the mother, or the mother the fetus” (TJ Sanh. 8:9, 26c). However, when the mother’s life is endangered, she herself may destroy the fetus – even if its greater part has emerged – “for even if in the eyes of others the law of a fetus is not as the law of a pursuer, the mother may yet regard the fetus as pursuing her” (Meiri, ibid.).

Contrary to the rule that a person is always fully liable for damage (mu’ad le-olam), whether inadvertently or willfully caused (bk 2:6, see Penal Law , Torts), it was determined with regard to damage caused by abortion, that “he who with the leave of the bet din and does injury – is absolved if he does so inadvertently, but is liable if he does so willfully – this being for the good order of the world” (Tosef., Git. 4:7), for “if we do not absolve those who have acted inadvertently, they will refrain from carrying out the abortion and saving the mother” (Tashbeẓ, pt. 3, no. 82; Minḥat Bik., Tosef., Git. 4:7).

In the Codes

Some authorities permit abortion only when there is danger to the life of the mother deriving from the fetus “because it is pursuing to kill her” (Maim. loc. cit.; Sh. Ar., ḤM 425:2), but permission to “abort the fetus which has not emerged into the world should not be facilitated [in order] to save [the mother] from illness deriving from an inflammation not connected with the pregnancy, or a poisonous fever … in these cases the fetus is not [per se] the cause of her illness” (Paḥad Yiẓḥak, S.V. Nefalim). Contrary to these opinions, the majority of the later authorities (aḥaronim) maintain that abortion should be permitted if it is necessary for the recuperation of the mother, even if there is no mortal danger attaching to the pregnancy and even if the mother’s illness has not been directly caused by the fetus (Maharit, Resp. no. 99). Jacob Emden permitted abortion “as long as the fetus has not emerged from the womb, even if not in order to save the mother’s life, but only to save her from the harassment and great pain which the fetus causes her” (She’elat Yaveẓ, 1:43). A similar view was adopted by Benzion Meir Ḥai Ouziel , namely that abortion is prohibited if merely intended for its own sake, but permitted “if intended to serve the mother’s needs … even if not vital”; and who accordingly decided that abortion was permissible to save the mother from the deafness which would result, according to medical opinion, from her continued pregnancy (Mishpetei Uziel, loc. cit.). In the Kovno ghetto, at the time of the Holocaust, the Germans decreed that every Jewish woman falling pregnant shall be killed together with her fetus. As a result, in 1942 Rabbi Ephraim Oshry decided that an abortion was permissible in order to save a pregnant woman from the consequences of the decree (Mi-Ma’amakim, no. 20).

The permissibility of abortion has also been discussed in relation to a pregnancy resulting from a prohibited (i.e., adulterous) union (see Ḥavvat Ya’ir, ibid.). Jacob Emden permitted abortion to a married woman made pregnant through her adultery, since the offspring would be a mamzer (see Mamzer ), but not to an unmarried woman who becomes pregnant, since the taint of bastardy does not attach to her offspring (She’elat Yaveẓ, loc. cit., S.V. Yuḥasin). In a later responsum it was decided that abortion was prohibited even in the former case (Leḥem ha-Panim, last Kunteres, no. 19), but this decision was reversed by Ouziel, in deciding that in the case of bastardous offspring abortion was permissible at the hands of the mother herself (Mishpetei Uziel, 3, no. 47).

In recent years the question of the permissibility of an abortion has also been raised in cases where there is the fear that birth may be given to a child suffering from a mental or physical defect because of an illness, such as rubeola or measles, contracted by the mother or due to the aftereffects of drugs, such as thalidomide, taken by her. The general tendency is to uphold the prohibition against abortion in such cases, unless justified in the interests of the mother’s health, which factor has, however, been deemed to extend to profound emotional or mental disturbance (see: Unterman, Zweig, in bibliography). An important factor in deciding whether or not an abortion should be permitted is the stage of the pregnancy: the shorter this period, the stronger are the considerations in favor of permitting abortion (Ḥavvat Ya’ir and She’elat Yaveẓ, loc. cit.; Beit Shelomo, ḤM 132).

Contemporary Authorities

Contemporary halakhic authorities adopted a strict approach towards the problem of abortion. R. Isser Yehuda Unterman defined the abortion of a fetus as “tantamount to murder,” subject to a biblical prohibition. R. Moses Feinstein adopted a particularly strict approach. In his view, abortion would only be permitted if the doctors determined that there was a high probability that the mother would die were the pregnancy to be continued. Where the mother’s life is not endangered, but the abortion is required for reasons of her health, or where the fetus suffers from Tay-Sachs disease, or Down’s syndrome, abortion is prohibited, the prohibition being equal in severity to the prohibition of homicide. This is the case even if bringing the child into the world will cause intense suffering and distress, to both the newborn and his parents. According to R. Feinstein, the prohibition on abortion also applies where the pregnancy was the result of forbidden sexual relations, which would result in the birth of a mamzer.

Other halakhic authorities – foremost among them R. Eliezer Waldenberg – continued the line of the accepted halakhic position whereby the killing of a fetus did not constitute homicide, being a prohibition by virtue of the reasons mentioned above. Moreover, according to the majority of authorities, the prohibition was of rabbinic origin. In the case of a fetus suffering from Tay-Sachs disease R. Waldenberg ruled: “it is permissible … to perform an abortion, even until the seventh month of her pregnancy, immediately upon its becoming absolutely clear that such a child will be born thus.” In his ruling he relies inter alia on the responsa of Maharit (R. Joseph Trani) and She’elat Ya’veẓ ( R. Jacob Emden ), who permit abortion “even if not in order to save the mother’s life, but only to save her from the harassment and the great pain that the fetus causes her” (see above). R. Waldenberg adds: “… Consequently, if there is a case in which the halakhah would permit abortion for a great need and in order to alleviate pain and distress, this would appear to be a classic one. Whether the suffering is physical or mental is irrelevant, since in many instances mental suffering is greater and more painful than physical distress” (Ẓiẓ Eliezer, 13:102). He also permitted the abortion of a fetus suffering from Down’s syndrome. Quite frequently, however, the condition of such a child is far better than that of the child suffering from Tay-Sachs, both in terms of his chances of survival and in terms of his physical and mental condition. Accordingly, “From this [i.e., the general license in the case of Tay-Sachs disease] one cannot establish an explicit and general license to conduct an abortion upon discovering a case of Down’s syndrome … until the facts pertaining to the results of the examination are known, and the rabbi deciding the case has thoroughly examined the mental condition of the couple” (ibid., 14:101).

In the dispute between Rabbis Feinstein and Waldenberg relating to Maharit’s responsum, which contradicts his own conclusion, R. Feinstein writes: “This responsum is to be ignored … for it is undoubtedly a forgery compiled by an errant disciple and ascribed to him” (p. 466); and regarding the responsum of R. Jacob Emden, which also contradicts his own conclusion, he claims that “… the argument lacks any cogency, even if it was written by as great a person as the Ya’veẓ” (p. 468). In concluding his responsum, R. Feinstein writes of “the need to rule strictly in light of the great laxity [in these matters] in the world and in Israel.” Indeed, this position is both acceptable and common in the halakhah, but in similar cases the tendency has not been to reject the views of earlier authorities, or to rule that they were forged, but rather to rule stringently, beyond the letter of the law, due to the needs of the hour (see Waldenberg , ibid., 14:6).

In the State of Israel

Abortion and attempted abortion were prohibited in the Criminal Law Ordinance of 1936 (based on English law), on pain of imprisonment (sec. 175). An amendment in 1966 to the above ordinance relieved the mother of criminal responsibility for a self-inflicted abortion, formerly also punishable (sec. 176). In this context, causing the death of a person in an attempt to perform an illegal abortion constituted manslaughter, for which the maximum penalty is life imprisonment. An abortion performed in good faith and in order to save the mother’s life, or to prevent her suffering serious physical or mental injury, was not a punishable offense. Terms such as “endangerment of life” and “grievous harm or injury” were given a wide and liberal interpretation, even by the prosecution in considering whether or not to put offenders on trial.

The Penal Law Amendment (Termination of Pregnancy) 5737–1977 provided, inter alia, that “a gynecologist shall not bear criminal responsibility for interrupting a woman’s pregnancy if the abortion was performed at a recognized medical institution and if, after having obtained the woman’s informed consent, advance approval was given by a committee consisting of three members, two of whom are doctors (one of them an expert in gynecology), and the third a social worker.” The law enumerates five cases in which the committee is permitted to approve an abortion: (1) the woman is under legally marriageable age (17 years old) or over 40; (2) the pregnancy is the result of prohibited relations or relations outside the framework of marriage; (3) the child is likely to have a physical or a mental defect; (4) continuance of the pregnancy is likely to endanger the woman’s life or cause her physical or mental harm; (5) continuance of the pregnancy is likely to cause grave harm to the woman or her children owing to difficult family or social circumstances in which she finds herself and which prevail in her environment (§316). The fifth consideration was the subject of sharp controversy and was rejected inter alia by religious circles. They claimed that the cases in which abortion is halakhically permitted – even according to the most lenient authorities – are all included in the first four reasons. In the Penal Law Amendment adopted by the Knesset in December 1979, the fifth reason was revoked.

The Israeli Supreme Court has also dealt with the question of the husband’s legal standing in an application for an abortion filed by his wife; that is, is the committee obliged to allow the husband to present his position regarding his wife’s application? The opinions in the judgment were divided. The majority view (Justices Shamgar, Ben-Ito) was that the committee is under no obligation to hear the husband, although it is permitted to do so. According to the minority view (Justice Elon), the husband has the right to present his claims to the committee (other than in exceptional cases, e.g., where the husband is intoxicated and unable to participate in a balanced and intelligent consultation, or where the urgency of the matter precludes summoning the husband). According to this view, the husband’s right to be heard by the committee is based on the rules of natural justice, that find expression in the rabbinic dictum: “There are three partners in a person: The Holy One blessed be He, his father and his mother” (Kid. 30b; Nid. 31a; C.A. 413/80 Anon. v. Anon., P.D. 35 [3] 57). Elon further added (p. 89): “It is well known that in Jewish law no ‘material’ right of any kind was ever conferred upon the parents, even with respect to their own child who had already been born. The parents relation to their natural offspring is akin to a natural bond, and in describing this relationship, notions of legal ownership are both inadequate and offensive” (C.A. 488/97 Anon. et al. v. Attorney General, 32 (3), p. 429–30). This partnership is based on the deep and natural involvement of the parents in the fate of the fetus who is the fruit of their loins, and exists even where the parents are not married, and a fortiori is present when the parents are a married couple building their home and family. When the question of termination of a pregnancy arises, each of the two parents has a basic right – grounded in natural and elementary justice – to be heard and to express his or her feelings, prior to the adoption of any decision regarding the termination of the pregnancy and the destruction of the fetus.

Abortion & Halacha

To gain a clear understanding of when abortion is sanctioned, or even required, and when it is forbidden, requires an appreciation of certain nuances of halacha (Jewish law) which govern the status of the fetus.

The easiest way to conceptualize a fetus in halacha is to imagine it as a full-fledged human being – but not quite. In most circumstances, the fetus is treated like any other “person.” Generally, one may not deliberately harm a fetus, and sanctions are placed upon those that purposefully cause a woman to miscarry. However, when https://www.the-essays.com/write-an-essay comes into direct conflict with an already born person, the autonomous person’s life takes precedence.

It follows from this simple approach, that as a general rule, abortion in Judaism is permitted only if there is a direct threat to the life of the mother by carrying the fetus to term or through the act of childbirth. In such a circumstance, the baby is considered tantamount to a rodef, a pursuer after the mother with the intent to kill her. Nevertheless, as explained in the Mishna (Oholos 7:6), if it would be possible to save the mother by maiming the fetus, such as by amputating a limb, abortion would be forbidden. Despite the classification of the fetus as a persuer, once the baby’s head has been delivered, the baby’s life is considered equal to the mother’s, and we may not choose one life over another, because it is considered as though they are both pursuing each other.

Judaism recognizes psychiatric as well as physical factors in evaluating the potential threat that the fetus poses to the mother. However, the danger posed by the fetus (whether physical or emotional) must be both probable and substantial to justify abortion. The degree of mental illness that must be present to justify termination of a pregnancy is not well established and therefore criteria for permitting abortion in such instances remains controversial.

As a rule, halacha does not assign relative values to different lives. Therefore, almost all major poskim (Rabbis qualified to decide matters of Jewish law) forbid abortion in cases of abnormalities or deformities found in a fetus. Rabbi Moshe Feinstein, one the greatest poskim in this century, rules that even amniocentesis is forbidden if it is performed only to evaluate for birth defects for which the parents might request an abortion. Nevertheless, a test may be performed if a permitted action may result, such as performance of amniocentesis or drawing alpha-fetoprotein levels for improved peripartum or postpartum medical management. While most poskim forbid abortion for “defective” fetuses, Rabbi Eliezar Waldenberg is a notable exception. Rabbi Waldenberg allows first trimester abortion of a fetus which would be born with a deformity that would cause it to suffer, and termination of a fetus with a lethal fetal defect such as Tay Sachs up to the end of the second trimester of gestation.

The question of abortion in cases of rape, incest, and adultery is a complex one, with various legal justifications propounded on both sides. In cases of rape and incest, a key issue would be the emotional toll exacted from the mother in carrying the fetus to term. The same analysis used in other cases of emotional harm might be applied here. Cases of adultery interject additional considerations into the debate which are beyond the scope of this short essay.

I have attempted to distill the essence of the traditional Jewish approach to abortion, but in reality, the parameters determining the permissibility of abortion within halacha are subtle and complex. It is crucial to remember that when faced with an actual patient, a competent halachic authority must be consulted in every case.

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2. Draft of Argumentative Essay ” Fashion in City Life”

Fashion in City Life

Many people, on the whole, have begun to move to city and become city-dwellers for the hope of reaching a better standard of living. The irresistible lures of the metropolis are many for them. The feeling of freedom caused by the anonymity and the stimulation of different human beings are just two of them.

Although it seems that there are many advantages, the glamorous façade is false. The cost of living is pretty high.https://www.pinterest.com/powerpoint_templates/math-powerpoint-templates/ Especially clothing is very expensive, if you want to be stylish. In developed countries, being trendy is important to be respected in any group. Many people are slaves to fashion although they like to think they are individualists. I don’t mean that they wear the expensive haute couture clothes. They slavishly like to wear the latest fashion. But they haven’t enough money to buy clothes from fashion houses; they are dressed in the way the big chain-stores dictate. Because of this, they have begun to be conformist.

Even their personal ornaments are the same; they can also underestimate people who don’t dress like them so the others develop some kind of inferiority complex. Even they cram children’s heads with these kinds of things about fashion. They label their friends according to their clothes. And they create an elite class composed of privileged teenagers.

Discrimination is in everywhere; but in city life, this is felt more especially for their clothes.

Fashion in City Life

Many people, on the whole, have begun to move to city and become city-dwellers for the hope of reaching a better standard of living. The irresistible lures of the metropolis are many for them. The feeling of freedom caused by the anonymity and the stimulation of different human beings are just two of them.

Although it seems that there are many advantages, the glamorous façade is false. The cost of living is pretty high. Especially clothing is very expensive, if you want to be stylish. In developed countries, being trendy is important to be respected in any group. Many people are slaves to fashion although they like to think they are individualists. I don’t mean that they wear the expensive haute couture clothes. They slavishly like to wear the latest fashion. But they haven’t enough money to buy clothes from fashion houses; they are dressed in the way the big chain-stores dictate. Because of this, they have begun to be conformist.

Even their personal ornaments are the same; they can also underestimate people who don’t dress like them so the others develop some kind of inferiority complex. Even they cram children’s heads with these kinds of things about fashion. They label their friends according to their clothes. And they create an elite class composed of privileged teenagers.

Discrimination is in everywhere; but in city life, this is felt more especially for their clothes.

Internet becomes an inseparable part of our daily routine in the meaning of enlightenment, communications, education and etc. It is the most practical way to reach knowledge from everywhere. In today’s world, people are acquainted with it from their early ages and they use it for their homework or games. So, internet has a big role in shaping children’s behaviors.

Internet walks into children life so much that their intelligence has dramatically developed in parallel with this growth. They begin to learn much more things about every subject and every new. They take a different approach to world and they become aware of other men’s lifestyles, other cultures, and other social structures of communities. They meet new friends from all around the world via internet so they find opportunity to learn foreign languages. And they gain self-confidence.

All of these opportunities may be helpful for children in terms of broadening their mental capacity but having so much knowledge about everything, unfortunately causes serious consequences.

Firstly, they begin to exhibit antisocial behaviors to people around them. They become prisoners of their room and they can’t feel comfortable themselves when they are out. They focus on invisible men so much that they don’t want to sit and talk in person.

On the other hand, violence finds a chance to come into their life via games in internet. They learn to fight with strange creatures which figure out ill-natured people. So they consider that they can destroy all things and people who they hate. They become berserker people who like blood, knife and guns.

Internet, of course, has many advantages for children but offering so much variety causes many disadvantages. So there must be some limitations about time which they sit at the computer and internet sites which they surf. At this point, the mission falls to parents. Arranging these types of limitations allows children to use internet beneficially.

second draft of contrast and comparison essay” men and women”

Equality of women and men has been disputed for many years. Some people consider that this kind of equality is impossible because of their physical properties while others say the exact opposite. But no matter what they say, both sexes differ from each other greatly in some respect.

One of the differences is their physical power. The average height of men is much longer than women and they are also heavier than women. These two physical features enable men to be over 30% stronger than women. And man also tends to have more muscle whereas female body is generally composed of a greater body fat percentage.

Another difference is about their intellectuality. There are many researches about the brain structure of both sexes and almost all scientists accept that their language learning ability, comprehension ability, and emotional quotient are specified according to the way of their brain. Some studies approve that women show less ability to carry out mental mathematical calculations and there are more men mathematicians, engineers, architects than women. On the other hand, women succeed in the field of human relations, aesthetic appreciation and verbal language. They also have high emotional intelligence level. So they are able to perceive overtones in others and read between the lines.

The last difference which I am going to mention is that men exhibit more aggressive behaviours when there is any objection to their view. They are in tendency to resort to physical forces for pulling their rank. But women prefer to speak for solving problems. And they show empathy towards other ideas.

As a conclusion, I want to emphasize that all men are equal in the sight of the law. There cannot be any objection about inherent right to live of all men. But they have different abilities, hobbies, and psychical properties by their nature.

second draft of classification essay ”animal species”

It is well-known that there are many different animal species on the earth. Some of them live on a land, while the others are at the sea. But there is still an unknown fact about how many kinds of animal species we have. So scientists have briefly classified them into two categories as vertebrates and invertebrates. All animals belong to one of these groups.

Vertebrates have an internal skeleton made of bone. Most of them have an exoskeleton. Fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals, primates, rodents and marsupials belong to this group. Even though there are a small number of vertebrates comparing to others’ populations, their size and power enable them to dominate their habitat.

We can cite mammals as an example concerning this matter. There are several unique characteristics of mammals which distinguish them from the others. They can bring fully formed babies into the world and female ones can put their babies to breast for feeding them. They are also the most intelligent living creatures on the earth. They are able to learn to live under hard conditions and adapt many different climates.

Invertebrates are the animals without a backbone. They don’t have an internal skeleton made of bone. Most of invertebrates have a fluid-filled, hydrostatic skeleton like worm. Others have a hard outer shell, like insects. More than 98% animal species in the world are invertebrates. The protozoa, annelids, echinoderms, molluscs and arthropods belong to this group. The main features of invertebrates are that they are composed of head, thorax and abdomen; so some of them respire through their skin. And they are unable to have babies because they are oviparous animals.

We can cite butterfly as an example of invertebrates. They are born from eggs. When eggs hatch, they are something like insects called caterpillar. Then they have full winged butterflies. Apart from many other invertebrates, they can fly. And they play an important role in ecology as pollinators. But they can’t live so long. According to their species, they live for one week to one year.

Classification of animals is a key to understand similarities and differences between animals and it provides scientists to explain evolutionary relationships, describe similar features through the various extents of animal groups and subgroups. But we should love all animals and respect their inherent right to life regardless of their species.

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How to Write the ACT Essay


How to Write the ACT Essay

How to Write the ACT Essay

The ACT essay differs from regular essays in a few ways, including time. The ACT essay format is slightly different and since this is an essential part of your future, you’ll want to make sure you know how to write an ACT essay.

The best way to get ready for the big test is to practice, practice, practice. ACT essay time is just 40 minutes, so it’s a good idea to make sure you have the ability to write quickly and persuasively in a limited amount of time.

ACT Essay Initial Preparation – Choosing Argument, Brainstorming

The new ACT essay gives students three different perspectives to consider and include in the essay. While the new regulations state that you can just discuss one perspective and your own, there’s no good reason not to include all of them in order to make a good impression.

To start off with the essay, you will need to pick your argument. Which perspective do you agree with? Think about why you agree with it and come up with a few arguments as to why your perspective is correct.

Next, brainstorm specific examples for each perspective. It’s essential to have good, solid examples. These cannot be general or vague . . . that will only serve to lose you points on the essay. Make sure you have a good, very specific example for the perspectives and at least two for the one you support.

This preparation takes a bit of time, so make sure you allot no more than 10 minutes to this part of the test. Remember, you have just 40 minutes to complete the entire essay, including brainstorming and editing.

New ACT Essay Writing – Introduction, Body Paragraphs

It’s a good idea to check out some ACT essay examples to use as samples to copy when you’re practicing. This will give you a good idea of what you need to write. However, the basic template begins with an introduction.

The introductory paragraph should state your perspective, as well as covering at least one other perspective that has been given in the essay question requirements. Let the reader know what they should expect from your essay.

Next, you will need to expound a bit on each perspective. The body of the ACT essay should be at least three paragraphs long and needs to include a minimum of two perspectives. Start with the point of view that you didn’t choose and explain it. You should include at least one specific example to illustrate the point.

The last paragraph or two needs to be about your chosen perspective. Whatever you decide to argue for, make this the bulk of the essay. It should also include very specific examples to prove your point. These examples are necessary to score high points, so do not leave them out.

Finishing up the ACT essay is just as important as starting it. With limited time, you need to create an excellent conclusion to the essay that will give the reviewer a reason to give you good marks. The conclusion or thesis statement is just a couple of sentences long, so make them count. This is the final impression you give the person marking your essay, so you’ll need to make sure you cover your argument and close out properly.

Finally, take a few minutes to proofread your essay and make sure there are no errors. Again, this is important, as you can easily lose points for incomplete sentences and other mistakes. Plot your time carefully to ensure you have enough left for proofreading.

The new ACT essay may have more time, but you will still need to practice and prepare for the test. Look at samples and write up a few practice essays to get a feel for things.

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